Cause Effect Essay Outline Worksheet

orange crop (cause) might mean the sale of more California oranges (effect). And, once you finish actually writing, the process continues. Use this Cause and Effect Eating Healthy Graphic Organizer Worksheet as an additional resource for your students. What you have written is not the finished essay, but a first draft, and you must go over many times to improve it -- a second draft, a third draft, as many as necessary to do the job right. The thesis states what the writer sees as the main cause, main effect, or various causes and effects of a condition or event. A new era of mass production arose in the United States of America due to new inventions and technological innovations. Creating a Character Worksheet. you effect to cover, examples. pub Author: Shayni Created Date: 3/11/2007 12:34:56 PM. Looking for the reason why things happen (cause/effect) is a basic human drive. Answer keys are provided where necessary. When writing a descriptive essay, it is best to make an outline of the topic that has to be discussed before scribbling anything on the paper. Follow these steps when writing a cause and effect essay. com provides free math worksheets and games and phonics worksheets and phonics games which includes counting, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division algebra, science, social studies, phonics, grammar for 1st grade, second grade, 3rd grade, 4th grade, 5th grade and 6th grade. These are worksheets and creative ideas for students in first grade, second grade or third grade to match a cause with the most-reasonable effect. A response is a critique or evaluation of the author's essay. Our family vacation was longer than usual. 2 1915 - Weak Point Strategy. Introduction. These worksheets help students begin to make inferences and work towards predictions based on them. o Your thesis statement will identify the main causes/effects that you have identified in a cause/effect essay. Summarise the person-situation debate and put forward your own view with reference to research and theory. These strategies help you with both your invention and organization of ideas, and can aid you in developing topics for your writing. This diagram-based technique, which combines Brainstorming with a type of Mind Map , pushes you to consider all possible causes of a problem, rather than just the ones that are most obvious. Enterprising students use this website to learn AP class material, study for class quizzes and tests, and to brush up on course material before the big exam day. Cause and Effect EFFECT This is an "effect". While it may be difficult to decide on the particular topic, you should follow two major requirements. Cause: I saw a field of beautiful flowers. Create an anchor chart with your students as a resource to help them identify. To write an essay outline, start with a section about your introduction that includes an introductory sentence and your thesis statement. It is a mini-plan for you and the reader. Smoking can cause diminished or extinguished sense of smell and taste, frequent colds, premature and more abundant face. Cause and effect essays are used to show how one thing causes another thing to happen. Compare and Contrast Writing Worksheets : A 2-page worksheet with a prompt to write a comparison / contrast essay about a kindergarten and an older student. When you have some serious problem at hand, it becomes difficult to sort it out without knowing the real cause behind it. We can write you a perfect assignment that ideally matches your requirements in no time. The purpose of this essay type is to analyze a variety of different reasons that can come from different fields and show how they are responsible for causing a certain effect. Target Language: s o/A sar eul td Th c nq f Owi g one effect of/ This is because/ as/ Hence/ consequently/ The effect. Causes Graphic Organizer. It is a plan or a skeleton of your future work, which allows you to stick to the point, including all the important details to your work. All the templates are easy to download and print. me, you will get high-quality and timely help. Free problem solving worksheets grade 2 google books critical thinking business improvement plans writing prompts for college students creative writing ideas writing my paper for me pennsylvania assigned risk plan claim # small restaurant business plan in india pdf 5 paragraph biography essay outline missing assignment forms sociology research. Many students struggle with this task. Introduction. Then, complete the Peer Review Worksheet: Cause/Effect (see attachment) to guide your review of a classmate's paper. How To Do It Good extended-response answers have three parts: a beginning, a middle, and an ending. If you want a custom essay, you can hire our writers online to help you write a process essay paper on any subject. This pattern is particularly effective when writing a persuasive document in which the writer advocates some action to solve a problem, because it demonstrates important relationships between variables. However, it can be made easier if you follow the right advice and use examples. Teach your students to be wary of false correlations! Just because an event follows another doesn't necessarily mean it is a consequence of that event. Our environment is the most critical factor that ensures our day to day survival. We have also written Persuasive Essay on Bullying. Click on the images to view, download, or print them. We provide Taxi service to Toronto, Mississauga, Hamilton, Niagara, Newmarket, and Oshawa areas as well. writing an outline for cause and effect essays includes how to write essay topics e629c9e64b8372255813de3538d think different, about smoking a step by in ielts. - Cause and Effect Essay - The Causes of America’s Social Problems The causes of social problems exist on many levels. Cause and Effect Worksheets and Printables. Cause and Effect Essay Outline Template Certain topics require the practical aspect of a topic to be produced happening due to something. The cause-and-effect essay can be organized in one of these two primary ways: Start with the cause and then talk about the effect. Sample cause and effect essay EFFECTS OF WATCHING TOO MUCH TV Discoveries and invention of devices are always welcome till we, humans, find a way to abuse its benefits and be adversely affected by it. to make a coherent essay. Everyone had to stay at home for four days. When writing cause and effect essay, outline becomes one of the most important things. These 6th-grade writing prompts (or sixth grade essay topics) are written for students in grade six. In this lesson we will learn about words and expressions used to show cause and effect. The introduction paragraph of this article can be considered as a sample of the cause and effect essay. Some cause and effect essays have more than one purpose. Here are the steps to follow when writing a cause and effect essay. Structure of a five paragraph persuasive essay ; Introduction (3-5 sentences) Hook: Grab the reader’s attention with a quote, scenario, question, vivid description, etc. If I introduce a topic, a conversational ball, I expect you to hit it back. You can order an essay on any topic here. Cause Effect Tree Chart Cloud Sequencing Form Your Basic Flowchart Chain of Events Sequencing Organizer Tags: Cause and Effect Sequencing Organizers Next post Key Facts Note Taking Form. Time spent arranging the outline will result in time saved writing an essay. • To bring attention to the need for lexical variation in a good essay. This essay on divorce is devoted to the urgent problem of our society, to the causes of divorce and its effects on life of ex-spouses and their kids. How to write a paragraph. Start drafting your cause-and-effect essay. In view of the rising number and frequency of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs),. Cause and effect essay outline worksheet Outside cause by davis believes most partners. Expository writing is writing to explain, inform, give information or to describe something. Understand the difference between cause (reason) and effect. If you are persuading (passing judgment), then you can have a limited thesis or a full thesis. Cause and effect is a common method of organizing and discussing ideas. It tracks an outline that is very coherent, and once the writer generates the pattern, the paper can be finished within the least time possible. In Science, we not only realize this we grasp why something is happening. In this section you will find samples of essays belonging to various essay types and styles of formatting. The following numbering system is standard and should be followed for outline assignments. Essay Outline Worksheet Author: Brian Davis Created Date: 2/18/2010 12:40:15 AM. If writing a cause effect essay is not your strongest side and you don't know where to start, you will definite need a help of an outline. This paper offers some tips on creating a cause and effect essay. Immigration and deportation. It is difficult to define the genre into which essays fall. As you introduce cause and effect, an anchor chart can help reinforce the concept. Explain that in writing such an essay you need to list a lot of problems of a single cause (overcrowding) so a lot of cause and effect phrases are needed. Cause and effect essay suggestions - Model production, management and deployment process has never been smoother. I have also included a filled out sample outline, which would show you how this outline would look if I had written it for an essay about college and the "freshman fifteen" weight gain phenomenon. transitions causes a traffic jam and should be avoided. Cause and effect is the last rhetorical pattern to be discussed and requires, perhaps, the most perspicacity to use effectively. Examples of Cause and Effect Essays of 5 paragraph length for Omani. 2 1915 - Weak Point Strategy. Students check answers as a whole class. 136 Unit 6 • Cause-Effect Essays What is a great topic for a cause-effect essay? This type of essay may focus more on the causes or more on the effects, but most writers answer this question by thinking of an effect or a final result. The essay will need to have an introduction that has the topics’ background, sets out the issues, and state out. Writing an effective cause and effect essay isn't that different from the facts of this scenario. They are free to use under a Creative Commons License. Cause and Effect Objective: Define cause and effect. A cause and effect essay, paragraph, review or report writing makes use of linear logic via deductive analysis to establish or explain a chain relationship of causes for a particular effect. Law Day 2007 Essay Topics. We offer Essay outline templates. Causes of Cyber Bullying. There are so many areas to explore while searching for suitable cause and effect essay topics. This is because people need to sleep for the mind to store memories. Cause and effect. Effect- is the result of something happening. You'll outline the causes, the effects, or both the causes and effects of a specific problem or issue. Writing Cause and Effect Essay Outline The outline helps to organize the work simplifies the writing process. Paraphrase the essay's thesis. Choose an interesting subject and brainstorm the reasons for -- or causes of -- a specific outcome. Plus, because of our vast team of writers, we also assure that we can tackle any subject given at any level in order to give you a better service. Examples of Cause and Effect Essays of 5 paragraph length for Omani. How To Write A Cause And Effect Essay (Definition + Topics + Outline) - Duration: 6:06. I expect you. Over the last decade there has been a prolific increase in the number of fast food restaurants. View Essay - Cause and Effect Organ Donation from ENG 105 at Grand Canyon University. Here, the writer lists out the issues and focus of the essay's argument. Then you might want to write a cause essay. Mental pollution leads to the degeneration of society. Cause & effect essay My computer essay pdf. Why Verbal Reasoning Cause and Effect? In this section you can learn and practice Verbal Reasoning Questions based on "Cause and Effect" and improve your skills in order to face the interview, competitive examination and various entrance test (CAT, GATE, GRE, MAT, Bank Exam, Railway Exam etc. The new dealof President Roosevelt has been accredited. 3 Reading Informational Text-Primer, Prerequisite. These notes will help you write your essay or report. Your outline allows you to understand what the structure of your essay will be and what subjects you should cover within each section. She hurt her knee when she fell down. If pizza is your favorite food, this essay or report would allow you. Here are the steps to follow when writing a cause and effect essay. Knowing how to write a cause and effect essay is crucial for communicating ideas. You can always write a good cause and effect essay on the various fields of music. Ask students to help you figure out effects of the different actions that occur. Cause and effect is one that my kids totally get. Causes of the Cold War:. Order Your Essay from the Best Essay Service When you’re faced with so many options for hiring a writing agency, you clearly need to be careful, since you want to hire the very best essay service. When we talk about an effect resulting from a certain cause, we use expressions such as: because, since, as, owing to, due to Examples. These paragraph writing worksheets help with this important element of literacy. The new dealof President Roosevelt has been accredited. Essay outline template is an effective way to carry out the process more efficiently. Cause and Effect Essay Topics: Sports Working out helps human bodies generate hormones that are beneficial to one's health and immune system. Yet, there are still ideas that there was one major cause, and other smaller, less important causes. Examples of Cause and Effect Essays of 5 paragraph length for Omani. It is even possible to order evolution essay based on an outline provided by you. Explain again that the prediction task comes from the essay on the board and give out 'Reorder the following sentences' and the 'Analysis worksheet' to complete individually. Selecting Cause and Effect Essay Topics. Usually, they are taught in introductory college or high school writing courses. Paragraphs structured as cause and effect explain reasons why something happened or the effects of something. Cause and Effect Essay Cause and effect essay may be presented like a causal chain of events explaining the reasons and expounding their consequences. - Cause and Effect Essay - The Causes of America's Social Problems The causes of social problems exist on many levels. Topic sentence (what this paragraph will discuss, how it will prove your thesis) B. 1 The Causes, course, and Effect of the First World War. Things were going well until Paula Wetsock in the second row asked, "Mr. Alongside a narrative, argumentative, and descriptive essay, an expository essay is an essay that is an accepted manner of discourse especially in the academic setting. Help! What Is Happening On The Third Rock From The Sun? is an interactive unit that investigates what is happening in our environment and how it is affecting us worldwide. The current paper analyzes the common causes and overall consequences of teenage pregnancy. This type of paper shows how a number of different causes can contribute to a specific effect. Essay on Cause and Effect. It is about the analysis of connections between conditions, events, or actions in order to better understand it. Outline Structure for Literary Analysis Essay I. Get help on your essay writing today. Choosing the correct essay topic makes your cause and effect essay more successful. If you are persuading (passing judgment), then you can have a limited thesis or a full thesis. These two presentations show some ways to organize a Cause and Effect essay. Students are then told that, like comparison essays, cause-effect essays can be graphically organized. Once you have chosen a topic and method of development for an essay, you need a plan—an outline—so you can present your ideas clearly. Click here for more of our free printable ELA: English Language Arts worksheets. A brief description of the worksheets is on each of the worksheet widgets. Thesis sentence First Cause Paragraph 1. A cause and effect essay is the type of paper that the author is using to analyze the causes and effects of a particular action or event. Cause & effect essay My computer essay pdf. The trees provide vital regulating ecosystem services, including stabilizing microclimate, soil structure, and atmospheric composition. But don't worry, read the article - you'll learn this and many other important things which will help you to write a cause and effect essay in the best way. Problem-Solution Essay Outline There are two ways to approach a problem-solution essay: either through a block or a chain structure. It is the best way to organize your arguments and present your standpoint. When people lose jobs or graduate from institutions and fail to get another within a reasonable time, in many cases, they will not be able to rent or mortgage on Cause And Effect Essay Cause And Effect Of Homelessness. 1) problem/solution, 2) cause/effect, or 3) statement of reason. You need to thoroughly investigate the situation and provide arguments using research thoughtful reflection on the problem. I thought the flowers would make a beautiful bouquet, so I picked some. Cause and effect book list Reading/Writing, level: Elementary Posted Thu Feb 6 06:31:46 PST 2003 by From Teachers. This page gives information on what a cause and effect essay is , how to structure this type of essay, and how to use cause and effect structure words. Leaders are at a better position to institute laws that curtail racism and to ensure that these laws are enforced successfully. In order to thoroughly understand what they are reading, students should be able to analyze the causes and effects as presented by the author. Conduct research using a variety of primary sources to explore perspectives in the global warming. Students write titles for the images and describe the. Students will: analyze the thesis and supporting evidence in a sample cause-and-effect essay. This type of college paper is used to find out the reasoning behind and the implications of certain things and events happening. These skills are a new addition to literature assessment in the recent years. Identify the cause and effect in a selection. Cause and effect diagram. His essay was called: "The Causes of the Economic Crisis. Paragraph of Comparison and Contrast. Whenever you want to state the reason as to why something has transpired, you are employing the cause-and-effect. How would your topic sentences look for this essay? (Thesis Statement) Papa John's and Anthony's Coal Fired Pizza restaurants have similar menus , but their atmospheres and prices set them apart. Persuasive Essay Outline explanation. Cause and Effect Worksheets Cause and Effect Worksheets Common Core State Standards: 3. An easy way to organize a cause-and effect essay is to describe one cause, and then explain its many effects. Cause and effect is a common way to organize information in a text. Writing assignment series Expository essays When writing your expository essay, follow these eight basic steps: Select a topic: Be sure the topic is narrow enough to make it manageable within the space of an essay. It also requires a knowledge of the expressions and vocabulary used to express causes and effects. When writing a cause and effect essay outline for your essay, it is in the body where you write and include the reasons and the results of your essay topic. Opening sentence 2. Get Free Access See Review. It led Stalin to think deeply. Finally, students read the essay on page 137 and answer the questions in the book. Cause and Effect Worksheets and Printables. Then, identify each event’s cause and effect, and put these in the appropriate spaces of the chain. Pay for essay writing online a fair price and choose an academic writer who will provide an original and complete well-researched college paper in return. Law Day 2007 Rules, Judging Criteria, and Prizes "READING" SECTION STARTS HERE. Sidetrack aside cause effect essay outline worksheet an compartmentalise, book review writing services decode homeschooling argumentative essays a reticulate unethical gnashingly. Cause and Effect; Cause and Effect Essays; Cause and Effect Essay; A Brief Guide to Writing Cause and Effect Essays; Cause and Effect Tip Sheet; Cause and Effect Papers; The Purpose of Cause and Effect in Writing; The Classification / Division Essay. Cause and Effect: Outline This is an outline for a cause-and-effect essay about fast food – how it become so popular and what its effects have been in the United Arab Emirates. Effect 1: Without proper exercise, the function of detoxification system of body is less effective due to lack of sweating. A cause and effect essay is a type of writing that describes the causes or effects (or both) that happen as a result of a certain event. Essay topics animals. The reason, or the cause, is that: People are smoking more. Usually, they are taught in introductory college or high school writing courses. This involves a way in writing where the writer tries to investigate how and why particular thing occurs. transitions causes a traffic jam and should be avoided. Order of importance 2. • To bring attention to the need for lexical variation in a good essay. Cause Effect Click on the cause. Students have a questions where they lay out the cause and effect and then they write a conclusion for the essay. Writing a good essay about cause and effect is easier than it might seem. Common Core State Standards require students to analyze text and identify common patterns of organization like cause and effect. These 6th-grade writing prompts (or sixth grade essay topics) are written for students in grade six. Many students fall into the trap of telling the reader what is happening in the text instead of analyzing it. This free printable effects chart graphic organizer worksheet features a large main cause box with arrows leading to four effect boxes. transitions causes a traffic jam and should be avoided. Sample compare-contrast essay outline Here is a sample outline for an essay comparing and contrasting Achilles’ and Odysseus’ attitudes toward war. She bought more. Usually, cause and effect essays are taught in high school and in introductory writing courses in college. This outline provides a framework for the 3-paragraph essay. See also: Cause and Effect Essay Outline. There are various types of an outline for essay such as argumentative essay outline, 5 paragraph essay outline, persuasive essay outline, narrative essay outline and many. Cause and Effect Worksheets. They are free to use under a Creative Commons License. Patterns of development help us sort out information and shape paragraphs or essays. Cause and Effect essays can be organized in just the same way as Argument and Opinion essays. Cause and effect essay topics for society and health. EIGHTH graders will write a research paper geared toward the cause and effects of air pollution. Expository essay outline As I’ve mentioned above, the successful completion of the paper doesn’t depend on the understanding of the topic only, but your ability to create a functional structure. Because it started raining, we had to go inside at recess. The leaders, and especially the majority whites, have been sees the occurrences of racial discriminations, but have put little or no efforts to eliminate or curb racism. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers. You need four paragraphs: an introduction, a body with at least two paragraphs, and a conclusion. Using information in these documents and your prior knowledge, write an essay describing the causes of the War of 1812, how each contributed to the decision to declare war, and the resulting action taken by President Madison and Congress. So – you’ve been assigned a cause and effect essay, have you? Well, there comes a time in every student’s life where they must embrace this very lengthy essay type. The following cause and effect essay topics about animals and the environment should show you why it's important to conserve the environment: What Causes Air Pollution In The City?. Once you find your worksheet, click on pop-out icon or print icon to worksheet to print or download. This essay talks about substance abuse with regard to the types of drugs, drug use and government efforts to curb substance abuse. You have already begun your writing on Worksheets B and C. , the effect of Trump candidacy on the Republican party or effect of Prince on music). An outline is of great importance simply because it will prevent you from going off topic while making sure you remember all the necessary details to include in your essay. This essay on divorce is devoted to the urgent problem of our society, to the causes of divorce and its effects on life of ex-spouses and their kids. Cause and Effect Essay Outline. to make a coherent essay. It follows a pattern that is very logical and once you create the outline the essay can be completed in no time. Eighth grade language arts lesson plans for Time4Learning's online education program. Water vapor causes the natural greenhouse effect. Structure of a definition essay: outline, topic choice, suitable topics The section of this definition essay writing guide discusses several basic elements. Cause and effect is a relationship between events or things, where one is the result of the other or others. I saw a field of beautiful flowers, so it made me want to pick some. Cause and effect essay is a way of writing an essay using a cause or an effect or both combined. Examples of Cause and Effect Essays of 5 paragraph length for Omani. Speech Outline Templates - Causal / Cause-Effect Main Point Organization Pattern. We have also written Persuasive Essay on Bullying. Patterns of development help us sort out information and shape paragraphs or essays. Read the following text and observe the cause and effect relationships. This assignment cannot be completed in a few hours one evening. The outline will provide broad guidelines to help prevent diversion into less important content. There's a catch, however, with "cause and effect" called "post hoc ergo propter hoc". This type involves a variety of essays such as cause and effect essay. Literature review on gym management system. Thesis sentence First Cause Paragraph 1. A cause and effect essay outline is usually structured according to the 5-paragraph essay format with an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion. Cause and Effect Essay Samples, Free Essay. A few of the causes that set off one of the greatest wars the world has ever seen are alliance systems, militarism, and imperialism. We should be using transitions sparingly (only when necessary). The cause and effect essay explains what happens and why it. In fact, most people suffering from depression and anxiety sleep for six hours or less a night (Peri, 1-3). The leaders, and especially the majority whites, have been sees the occurrences of racial discriminations, but have put little or no efforts to eliminate or curb racism. Comparison and contrast essay is one of the most common assignments in American high schools and universities. 3 paragraph essay outline template, printable cause and effect worksheets and college persuasive speech outline example are three of main things we want to present to you based on the gallery title. A cause is something that produces an effect. This free printable effects chart graphic organizer worksheet features a large main cause box with arrows leading to four effect boxes. In this cause and effect worksheet, students explore how the two work together. Her parents read to. Click here to print. You just need to and the effect style. What does patriotism means to me essay. Because it started raining, we had to go inside at recess. Cause And Effect Essay. Ralph Waldo Emerson said the Law of Cause and Effect is the "law of laws". All our essays are written from scratch. 1 Brainstorming cause/effect topics. Answer the Essay & Short Answer Exam Questions Well Part 3: Cause & Effect Questions!!!!! Mostessay%questions%contain%an%Action%Word%thatyou%can%use%to%help%you. (Delhagen! Literary Essay Outline Sample If you are having trouble with your literary essay, follow this outline. Application letter for optician essay stop violence. In addition to their research, students will give advice on what steps their readers can take to make good decisions when faced with this topic. Most explanations and discussions include cause-and-effect logic in only several paragraphs, a sentence, or a phrase within a sentence. Knowing how to write a cause and effect essay is crucial for communicating ideas. mera 8/1/2017 The Effects of Exercise (mental, social, and physical health). To begin with, one should know the meaning of insomnia to better understand the causes, and other factors of this sleep disorder. Cause and Effect - 3 ways to diagram events using Microsoft PowerPoint Free Presentation Tutorials - including how to create a new presentation from several old ones, add sound, more Free Online Language Arts Games for Kids. The thesis should allow the reader to imagine and anticipate the flow of the paper, in which a sequence of points logically prove the essay's main assertion. Cause and Effect. This free printable effects chart graphic organizer worksheet features a large main cause box with arrows leading to four effect boxes. In a cause and effect essay, the thesis statement expresses whether the essay will focus on causes, effects, or both. College students believe professors ignore the fact that students cheat, but in fact they do. In every essay, it is essential to draft the outline first. Use this Cause and Effect Eating Healthy Graphic Organizer Worksheet as an additional resource for your students. B) The consequence of too dense a population is that one or all of these areas must suffer. The Cause and effect essay is another common essay type, either as an essay type on its own, or as part of a larger essay which includes one or more paragraphs examining causes and effects. A reason/effect essay outline is different from other essays. pub Author: Shayni Created Date: 3/11/2007 12:34:56 PM. There are so many areas to explore while searching for suitable cause and effect essay topics. Online custom essays, term papers, research papers, reports, reviews and homework assignments. The cause and effect essay outline can be done in three different ways. I ordered fried shrimp because it is my favorite food. See the examples below (which are the same ones I showed you in class today). In the PARCC literary analysis task, students must closely analyze two literary texts—often focusing on their themes or points of view—and compare and contrast these texts. Cause and effect is one text structure or pattern of organization. It pertains to a general writing composition course – “Success”: Causes of Success: diligence; talent or intelligence; high level of education; networking and making good, intelligent choices in life. Cause and Effect Essay Cause and effect essay may be presented like a causal chain of events explaining the reasons and expounding their consequences. gives background information. Other assignments may involve your opinion. Cause & Effect Write the cause and effect for each sentence. Cause and effect essay is a common technique of arranging and discussing ideas. In this cause and effect lesson, students examine still photographs from the film Holes and place them in sequential order. That is the goal of this page. They can help organize an outline, or depending on the purpose they can determine the form that a paper will take. In the PARCC literary analysis task, students must closely analyze two literary texts—often focusing on their themes or points of view—and compare and contrast these texts. That’s why it’s always useful to learn how to construct outlines for different types of essay writing. Camp profile essay example for college tropical islands. Best Essay Writing Service. Effect Essays explain what happened after a particular event, or the situations which stem from a particular decision, event, or cause (e. ESL Brainstorming Exercises and Worksheets. College students believe professors ignore the fact that students cheat, but in fact they do. Fighting the Battle against Drugs. Examples of Cause and Effect Essays of 5 paragraph. You have already begun your writing on Worksheets B and C. It may also examine the results (or effects) of that same event. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: