Split A List Into Batches Python

For ranking task, weights are per-group. Allowing access to these models in Excel opens up a whole range of possibilities. 4 and Python 2. My Problem: My function to split lists doesn't split them into lists of the correct size. Define split. and then iterate? do you mean you want to split Batch 1 and Batch 2 into smaller batches still? - benten Sep 21 '16 at 17:14 @benten yes, pick the first batch from the original array and then iterate to the second batch after. Sejda helps with your PDF tasks. string_value = ",". join (items) print(string_value) # Separate string into a string list. But more likely you want one picture per slide. Open a Python File window. Python MySQL Insert Into Table The second parameter of the executemany() method is a list of tuples, containing the data you want to insert: Example. Python for ArcGIS | ArcGIS Resource Center. For instance: splitPDF. This can be done by using NLP techniques such as sentence segmentation, dependency parsing, parts of speech tagging, and entity recognition. To simply list files in a directory the modules os, subprocess, fnmatch, and pathlib come into play. It copies the list old into new. Break a list into chunks of size N in Python. In this article you will learn how to split a single table in two or more tables. Data scientists working with Python can use familiar tools. We realize people do not fit into neat boxes. unicode is for strings of unicode code points. You can see official python documentation for this function. List all attach files in selected notebooks or sections. MLflow’s mlflow. Sublime Text is a sophisticated text editor for code, markup and prose. Modifying a Single List Value. This is the opposite of concatenation which merges or combines strings into one. Think now of a Python list. split command, but it only seems to separate the filename from the path (or am I just using it wrong?). There was a Microsoft Script Editor which was shipped with Microsoft Office 2000 through 2003, but I have never tried it. System interfaces allow data exchange between core Willis Towers Watson systems to multiple systems. Python tips - How to easily convert a list to a string for display There are a few useful tips to convert a Python list (or any other iterable such as a tuple) to a string for display. In this cipher, you encrypt a message by taking each letter in the message (in cryptography, these letters are called symbols because they can be letters, numbers, or any other sign) and replacing it with a “shifted” letter. An Alternative would be to have your batch macro contain your entire process so that you can keep it In-DB. split function splits a string when it encounters a space(" ") and put them into a list. I ( @HockeyGeekGirl ) recently recorded some courses with Christopher Harrison ( @GeekTrainer ) on Microsoft Virtual Academy about coding with Python. How do I do this in Python? CSV File structured as follows:. array_split Split an array into multiple sub-arrays of equal or near-equal size. The start section of a slice designates the first index of the list we want to included in our slice. When one wants to create a vector from Python, either the class Vector or the convenience classes IntVector, FloatVector, BoolVector, StrVector can be used. How do I execute standard Unix or Linux shell commands using Python? Is there a command to invoke Unix commands using Python programs? You can execute the command in a subshell using os. import string - We are making use of Python's string directory. [Java] Split list into batches of max size n. Python string library doesn’t support the built-in reverse() as done by other Python containers like list. Allows duplicate members. I have one I wrote here, but it is only able to import one CAD file at a time. So when you want to split two or more tables you need to perform two or more split operations. You can run the program from the "Run" dialog or by typing commands into a terminal window. None, 0 and -1 will be interpreted as return all splits. Split the binary sequence into subsequences of the same type, using sep as the delimiter string. I have the following string - "['1', '2']" that I need to convert into a list of integers - [1,2]. Built by experienced developers, it takes care of much of the hassle of Web development, so you can focus on writing your app without needing to reinvent the wheel. How To Split A Python List Into Evenly Sized Chunks. See more at Python's official documentation. You can … Continue reading Python 101: Reading and Writing CSV Files →. Notice the pipes ("|") are inside the pyp command. python should give you a ‘>>>” prompt from the Python interpreter. This is done by creating a variable called split, which is defined to be the integer value of 0. We’ll start by importing a Python library called pandas, and nicknaming it pd so that we can refer to it easily in. I can not find out how to read a file into a list of lists. After reading each batch, I will split the line (in string format) to a list using. In CNTK, there are a variety of means to provide minibatch sources:. Python has a great built-in list type named "list". Series Navigation ← How to Clone a List in Python: Slice, Copy, and More How to Make a Python Script Shortcut with Arguments: Batch, Bash, and More →. Cloudflare was recognized by the World Economic Forum as a Technology Pioneer and named to Entrepreneur Magazine’s Top Company Cultures list. A default split percentage of 0. Example: Fun With Prime Numbers Suppose our boss asks us to write a function that takes a list of int s and returns some Iterable containing the elements which are prime 1 numbers. You can also put your Python scripts into a directory and add this to the path. 0 events, as used in XML processing. If you are new to Python review the. When a string type is given, what's returned is a list of characters in it. i dont need to save a sentence in a list. The string splits at this specified separator. Posted in Python. The Python API was tested on Linux/Windows systems that have Python 2. Method 1: Using yield The yield keyword enables a function to comeback where it left off when it is called again. A regular function cannot comes back where it left off. The Batch: Split Document dialog box appears. You can use scikit-learn and the LabelEncoder to encode the list of cities into categorical integer values like here: >>> from sklearn. There is a way to accept the list as an input in python. Python Split a list into two lists by particular value [duplicate] 42. Take a look at how to search the list. The above converts all the items in mylist to a string, and then joins them with the newline character before writing to the file. In this view, scripting is particularly glue code, connecting software components, and a language specialized for this purpose is a glue language. In this article, we will show you, How to use this List count function with practical examples. hyphenate_word takes a string (the word), and returns a list of parts that can be separated by hyphens:. * Simple split of string into list * Python split string by separator * Split string dictionary into lists (map) * Python split string by first occurrence * Split string by consecutive separators. › i want to split a text file on line count › how to parse a text file based on a field › [Solved] How to create batch script to create text files from excel › Batch Script to find a Specific file and copy it › batch script to replace a portion of filename › [Solved] I need to read a text file and use each line as a variable. Split is used to break a delimited string into substrings. Learn Python, a powerful language used by sites like YouTube and Dropbox. i have numpy 2d array of X = (1783,30) and i want to split them in batches of 64. PyMongo would pass a callback that sends the batch to Mongo, other users could do other things. A new list will be created where you may use int in each iteration as shown in the example below: See online demo and code. Solution We can define a function that … - Selection from Python Cookbook [Book]. $ python urlparse_urlparse. Column names and column must be specified. Lets first define a list: list_x = [] #Empty list list_x # Print the list to see its contents. python asked how to Split a list into two parts based on a filter?, and the answers were interesting and insightful. We apply a function to an argument, then pass that result on as an argument to a second application of the same function, and so on. split() Pandas provide a method to split string around a passed separator/delimiter. The entire setup is meant in such a way to groom the candidates that Sevenmentor has no hesitation in providing a 100% Job Oriented Courses in Pune. string's join() in python: Python string class provides a member function join() i. Tuple is a collection which is ordered and unchangeable. This will overwrite the previous list, so create a copy to sort, if you need to preserve the original. This module provides a single function to hyphenate words. a 100% Job Oriented Courses in Pune to all the trainees. You have 2 big bugs in your method. This is where Python and the Python Imaging Library (or PIL) come in, allowing you to write scripts that process images in batch. Does not raise an exception if an equal division cannot be made. Summary: Since Python is an object-oriented programming language, many functions can be applied to Python objects. Apache Spark is a unified analytics engine for big data processing, with built-in modules for streaming, SQL, machine learning and graph processing. The Python split string function is one of the String Method. Since we read one line at a time with readline , we can easily handle big files without worrying about memory problems. List comprehension is a complete substitute for the lambda function as well as the functions map(), filter() and reduce(). Skip navigation Sign in. Before making this change, keep in mind that there are fundamental differences between lists and sets. This class allows to vectorize a text corpus, by turning each text into either a sequence of integers (each integer being the index of a token in a dictionary) or into a vector where the coefficient for each token could be binary, based on word count, based on tf-idf num_words: the maximum number. py you can use it by just typing r2w at the console. array_split Split an array into multiple sub-arrays of equal or near-equal size. The join() method is useful when you have a list of strings that need to be joined together into a single string value. split([sep[, maxsplit]]) As you can see, the method split has two optional parameters. shuffle(ys). It is described below. Ok, so I've already used line split stuff to transform my data into something like this in a text file:. I am new to python and stuck at a particular problem involving dataframes. Training random forest classifier with scikit learn. Have each instance of Python process one of the 4 chunks of data. Consider you have the list with name: [code ]myList[/code]. Start Python from the Start Menu, or make sure the PATH is set correctly so Windows can find the Python interpreter. array_split(np. 4 different ways of parsing a list - Python example. This is confusing for beginners and should be avoided. Quite a number of programmers learned scripting on a PC running DOS. Strait from the terminal I get a hello world copy as file2… as expected. part of strings comes into play. First, if it is a list of strings, you may simply use join this way:. You can also add another argument that tells split() how many times the separator will be used to split the text. You are first going to implement a data generator to train your model. * Simple split of string into list * Python split string by separator * Split string dictionary into lists (map) * Python split string by first occurrence * Split string by consecutive separators. How to Convert Dictionary Values to a List in Python Published: Tuesday 16 th May 2017 In Python, a dictionary is a built-in data type that can be used to store data in a way thats different from lists or arrays. How to Reverse a List in Python By Dan Bader — Get free updates of new posts here. It returns the string representing the value, which is typed by the user. Some elements of the list is an another list. The Python Developer is required to develop, enhance and support suite of system interfaces and regulatory reports using Python and SQL technologies. Also, any leading and trailing whitespaces are trimmed before the string is split into a list of words. In following example, a list with 12 elements is present. In a set, on the other hand, the hash of the item will tell Python where in the set to look for a matching item. Note: The split() method with a string argument separates strings based on the specified delimiter. This is done by creating a variable called split, which is defined to be the integer value of 0. This is the 19th article in my series of articles on Python for NLP. These are the 230 blog posts about the Python programming language: 2 Aug 2019: Why your mock doesn’t work Filter a list into two parts. Parse JSON using Python. 0 events, as used in XML processing. We just looked at a number of approaches to implement a singly- and doubly-linked list in Python. In this snippet we take a list and break it up into n-size chunks. But more likely you want one picture per slide. In this tutorial you'll learn how to use Python's rich set of operators, functions, and methods for working with strings. split(\n) following text for example should be considered as a list of lists (3 columns and 3 rows), so that when I make the print statement list[0] [0], that the word pear appears pear noun singular books nouns plural table noun. Don’t forget the CTRL-Z and ENTER to terminate the interpreter (and, if you started the window from the Start Menu, make the window disappear). [Java] Split list into batches of max size n. It imports the CAD files and split it into feature classes and stores it in the geodatabase via the feature dataset. Welcome to the Python Packaging User Guide, a collection of tutorials and references to help you distribute and install Python packages with modern tools. Python and Tcl - public course schedule Private courses on your site - see Please ask about maintenance training for Perl, PHP, Lua, etc. To train the random forest classifier we are going to use the below random_forest_classifier function. Splitting a list into even chunks. Mastering this concept would help you in two ways: You would start writing. String or regular expression to split on. There is also an optional second clause that we can add that allows us to set how the list's index will increment between the indexes that we've set. Method 1: Using yield The yield keyword enables a function to comeback where it left off when it is called again. I am getting started with Python¶. In our example here, in which we run our program on the file x , sys. shuffle(ys). The list shall be split at the previous element if the current element is twice as large as the previous one. Here we handle a string that contains city names separated by commas. You can run the program from the "Run" dialog or by typing commands into a terminal window. Python How to convert a text file into a list or array. Python was introduced to the ArcGIS community at 9. For example, the pipeline for an image model might aggregate data from files in a distributed file system, apply random perturbations to each image, and merge randomly selected images into a batch for training. This is the opposite of concatenation which merges or combines strings into one. You can see official python documentation for this function. Just as the DOS batch file itself can have arguments, a function can be called with arguments in a similar way. It is described below. The parts of the URL available through the tuple interface are the scheme, network location, path, parameters, query, and fragment. I use it to split large data sets into smaller batches for import into database systems. If the list is divided evenly, then you can replace zip_longest with zip, otherwise the triplet (13, 14, None) would be lost. This activity uses Python, but not our regular Python Editor. Just as the DOS batch file itself can have arguments, a function can be called with arguments in a similar way. As a result, the search can be done quickly, even if the set is large. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts. System interfaces allow data exchange between core Willis Towers Watson systems to multiple systems. By comparison an array is an ordered collection of items of a single type - so in principle a list is more flexible than an array but it is this flexibility that makes things slightly harder when you want to work with a regular structure. We realize people do not fit into neat boxes. A city of southwest Croatia on the Dalmatian coast of the Adriatic Sea. These are the 230 blog posts about the Python programming language: 2 Aug 2019: Why your mock doesn’t work Filter a list into two parts. Compressing the contents of several folders into one ZIP file (which could be a simple backup system) All this boring stuff is just begging to be automated in Python. Parse JSON using Python. This site hosts packages and documentation uploaded by authors of packages on the Python Package Index. For example, if you index 0 passes through the for loop, a list of [0:2] will be given. your program will also output the largest number, the smallest number of these three. Ask Question Asked 7 years, 1 month ago. 0 from the original HTML format into the PEP format. 1 Developer Guide demonstrates how to use the C++ and Python APIs for implementing the most common deep learning layers. As the name suggests filter extracts each element in the sequence for which the function returns True. Your program will output the sum and average of these 3numbers. There is a way to accept the list as an input in python. Give a list a number and it will return the value that is stored at that location. data API enables you to build complex input pipelines from simple, reusable pieces. Since there is no overarching classification scheme for programming languages, in many cases, a language will be listed under multiple headings. However you can do the method equivalents even if t is any iterable, for example s. Python "sum" - Convert list-of-lists to a list. This data generator will have a method called. This article is part of a tutorial, In-database Python analytics for SQL developers. Note: Since all files are passed into the FTP`s MGET command there might be a limit to the number of files that can be processed at once. vsplit Split array into multiple sub-arrays vertically (row wise). On the other hand, Python 3 uses input() function which automatically interpreted the type of input entered by the user. Based on the results of the key function, you can sort the given list. In other words if you wanted January you would use months[0]. 5 looks like this (on older platforms you will need to use actual script instead of the -m option):. We loop over the resulting list. Need help? Post your question and get tips & solutions from a community of 432,379 IT Pros & Developers. When other data types are given, the specifics vary but the returned type is always a list. You see an editor in which you can type the example code. How to split string in Python # So you are looking to break up a string into smaller strings (into an array if you are coming from a PHP / JavaScript background) based on a delimiter or character. split() print "Python2, Python3, Python, Numpy". In our example, we will also split the state (the number of times each word has been seen) into 26 partitions, where each partition handles words that start with different letters. I have a list which contains nucleotide sequences (E. Python provides a very straightforward and easy function to do that. The copy command requires a CSV file. BAT) from the Windows command line. Another approach to convert a list of multiple integers into a single integer is to use map() function of Python with str function to convert the Integer list to string list. Use Python to batch download files from FTP sites, extract, rename and store remote files locally. search(None, 'ALL') mail_ids = data[0] id_list = mail_ids. array_split Split an array into multiple sub-arrays of equal or near-equal size. Here, we will inspect a python script (named tk-img2video) which will combine images into a video. This function accepts two optional arguments and if you specify the first argument (separator) then, rsplit will use the specified separator to return a list of words. Few examples to show you how to split a String into a List in Python. For example :. Python is a popular general purpose dynamic scripting language. Batch interpreters prior to Windows 2000 would have displayed result MyVar is not defined. This post will show you how to use Python to connect to a SQL Server database, save and retrieve data. Learn Python, a powerful language used by sites like YouTube and Dropbox. split() >>> print(t) ['pining', 'for', 'the', 'fjords'] >>> print(t[2]) the. For example, I am working with administrative health claims data and I want to split the master dataset by each region (I have 13 regions in all). split () A simple debugging function for Python programs. How to split a list into evenly sized chunks in Python | Python Tutorial In this video I will show you two different ways you how you can quickly to split a list into n sized evenly chunks. To make sure chunks are exactly equal in size use np. #Import the string functions from python import string # 1) Splits the text file into individual characters # to identify the commas and parsing the individual # tokens. pdf into 3 files, splitting at pages 3 and 5. I have a list which contains nucleotide sequences (E. This Python split string function accepts two arguments (optional). Create your free Platform account to download our ready-to-use ActivePython or customize Python with any packages you require. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts. There are some obvious ways to do this, like keeping a counter and two lists, and when the second list fills up, add it to the first list and empty the second list for the next round of data, but this is potentially extremely expensive. 6/Revenge of the Strings Notice how split() converts a string into a list of strings. Don't do that. split() #Gets the second last value from the list and split on whitespace. Excel is a popular and powerful spreadsheet application for Windows. There is a collection of plugins ready to be used, available to download. Combine images into a video with Python 3 and OpenCv 3. like all other windows. This sample shows you how to use the Azure Cosmos DB Table SDK for Python in common Azure Table storage scenarios. Python has a great built-in list type named "list". This creates a 2D representation of objects (like glass marbles). To find a specific topic in this guide, use ctrl+F (command+F on a Mac) to search for a keyword, or find the relevant section in the table of contents below. Once i've split it into codons i need to extract the frequency of all codons that begin with the letter "C". You have 2 big bugs in your method. How to Reverse a List in Python By Dan Bader — Get free updates of new posts here. then by this output i will use an other program that can help me to identify if word1 is a noun or not and son on. That’s not a lot of people in the grand scheme of things. This tutorial shows how to use Python with Oracle Database 11g. It is important to note that the index in Python starts from 0, not 1. assuming that you want those 7-digits integer to be in the list individually, you'd like to do this: [code]a = 1234567 #your seven digit integer your_list = [] for i in str(a): your_list. This is the 19th article in my series of articles on Python for NLP. NumPy Array Object Exercises, Practice and Solution: Write a NumPy program to convert a list and tuple into arrays. You also saw some code examples of the standard operations and algorithms, for example how to reverse a linked list in. Otherwise, python programs can be run from a command prompt by typing python file. /, and it will create subfolders and put all others files into them separately, by default, 10 files per folder, which is decided by the variable N in the code. There are many approaches to. split() print "Python2, Python3, Python, Numpy". List all attach files in selected notebooks or sections. If it is not provided then there is no limit. Like a string, we can concatenate and multiply a Python list. If you want to use Python and an Oracle database, this tutorial helps you get started by giving examples. Active 6 years, 9 months ago. How to use Split in Python At some point, you may need to break a large string down into smaller chunks, or strings. Let's discuss the different ways we can do this. The string can contain from 1 to many integers. The easiest way to split list into equal sized chunks is to use a slice operator successively and shifting initial and final position by a fixed number. Mailing List Archive. The start section of a slice designates the first index of the list we want to included in our slice. Spark is built on the concept of distributed datasets, which contain arbitrary Java or Python objects. /, and it will create subfolders and put all others files into them separately, by default, 10 files per folder, which is decided by the variable N in the code. Let's look at another example where we have CSV data into a string and we will convert it to the list of items. This wikiHow teaches you how to run a batch file (. After you complete the quickstart, you can deactivate the virtual environment by running deactivate. Running the file should print 19491 and ('Bosmer', 'Female', 'Gluineth') (but may differ from one computer to another). Suppose take lists and string data type and try to combine both, as the data types are different Python will not allow you to do so. 9 comments. Base class for loss. Below is the function as well as a demo (main()) and the CSV file used. Column names and column must be specified. Click the "Export" button will export all attach files in list. If we choose to split the string into two substring from the exclamation mark !. vsplit Split array into multiple sub-arrays vertically (row wise). It would be more appropriate to create our own data type (called enumerable) for these states, but we'll get into that later. For more information, see the manual page on PERIODIC COMMIT. Import data into Python for analysis and visualization from various sources such as CSV and delimited TXT files. C programming, exercises, solution: Write a program in C to split string by space into words. Unfortunately, the last one is a list of ingredients. You can … Continue reading Python 101: Reading and Writing CSV Files →. (It so happens I ran into exactly this issue yesterday, though my delimiter was a colon. subprocess. There are 50000 training images and 10000 test images. Since this is a divide-and-conquer algorithm we want to take a list of unsorted integers and split the problem down into two easier problems and then break each of those down…. Then each batch of input data will have a corresponding output batch of data. This TensorRT 6. You can use either a character array to specify zero, one, or multiple delimiting characters (the Split(Char[]) method), or you can use a character array to specify zero, one, or multiple delimiting strings. This is MySQL Python programming tutorial. Home > Python > Python; How to check if a list contains an item online. Python : Get number of elements in a list, lists of lists or nested list; Python : Convert list of lists or nested list to flat list; Different ways to Iterate / Loop over a Dictionary in Python; C++ : Different Ways to iterate over a List of objects; Python : List Comprehension vs Generator expression explained with examples; Python: How to. Azure Batch Python Samples Configuring the samples. This method takes two parameters and both are optional. The ACLU said it received the last batch of 1,556 names one day ahead of Friday’s deadline. Converting DOS Batch Files to Shell Scripts. List is not the only recursive data structure. To give a little more context, let's suppose we want to divide a list of jobs equally between n workers, where n might be the number of CPU cores available. Click Split traffic and then specify: The method that you want to use for splitting traffic. A default split percentage of 0. Python Forums on Bytes. split() Using the first email id and last email id, we’ll iterate through the email list and fetch each email’s subject and header. In this snippet we take a list and break it up into n-size chunks. (Obviously x = lengthof list/5) I have done this by a simple for loop and using indexes into the list. These are the 230 blog posts about the Python programming language: 2 Aug 2019: Why your mock doesn’t work Filter a list into two parts. The csv module gives the Python programmer the ability to parse CSV (Comma Separated Values) files. Splitting String/lines in python Splitting String by space Splitting on first occurrence Splitting lines from a text file in Python Splitting String by newline(\n) Splitting String by tab(\t) Splitting String by comma(,) Split string with multiple delimiters Split a string into a list. How do I do this in Python? CSV File structured as follows:. Spark is written in Scala and it provides APIs to work with Scala, JAVA, Python, and R. PowerShell v2. If you then have a Python script like r2w. pdf into 3 files, splitting at pages 3 and 5. There is a string method split, which can be used to split a string into a list of substrings. Python tips - How to easily convert a list to a string for display There are a few useful tips to convert a Python list (or any other iterable such as a tuple) to a string for display. If you have installed Kutools for Excel, with its Transform Range feature, you can quickly split a long list into multiple columns and rows, moreover, you can also combine multiple columns into one long list. In the current Microsoft Windows operating system, a text-mode command prompt window, cmd. 5 looks like this (on older platforms you will need to use actual script instead of the -m option):. Many of Yahoo!'s Web Service APIs provide the option of JSON as an output format in addition to XML. Pre-trained models and datasets built by Google and the community. Ok, this is kind of making sense so once I have pulled out say the three longest, shortest, and middle words what syntax do I use to tell it to take those words and split each word onto a line listing the frequency or number of times each of the words occurs in the list. Usually, it's to format invoices, or reports from bug trackers. split() print words Related examples in the same category. It can be embedded into a bigger software package for this purpose. Example: Fun With Prime Numbers Suppose our boss asks us to write a function that takes a list of int s and returns some Iterable containing the elements which are prime 1 numbers. This is where Natural Language Processing (NLP) comes into the picture. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: